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X++ Syntax

This topic contains contains the syntax reference for X++.

X++ Keywords

The X++ keywords shown in the following table are reserved. These keywords cannot be used for any other purpose.

Reserved word Description More information
! Not. Relational Operators
!= Inequality operator (not equal to). Relational Operators
# Prefix on macro names. How to: Use #define and #if to Test a Macro
& Binary AND. Arithmetic Operators
&& Logical AND. Relational Operators
( Function call operator, which indicates the beginning of the function call.
) Function call operator, which indicates the end of the function call.
* Multiply.

The asterisk (*) is also used in X++ SQL. One use is to signify all fields from the tables on a select statement. Another use is as a wildcard with the like operator, to signify 0 to many characters of any kind. The like operator also uses the ? character.

Arithmetic Operators
^ Binary XOR. Arithmetic Operators
| Binary OR. Arithmetic Operators
|| Logical OR. Relational Operators
~ Not. Arithmetic Operators
+ Plus. Arithmetic Operators
++ Increment. Assignment Operators
+= Additive assignment. Assignment Operators
, Comma operator. Expressions separated by commas are evaluated left-to-right.
Minus. Arithmetic Operators
Decrement operator. Assignment Operators
-= Subtractive assignment. Assignment Operators
. Class member access operator, for example, formRun.run accesses the run method of an object of the class type FormRun.
/ Divide. Arithmetic Operators
\ Escape in strings. Escapes extra quotation marks, and certain letters such as \t for tab.
@ Escape of keywords. For example, str @abstract; would fail to compile without the @ sign.

Also affects literal strings, by negating the effect of the \ escape character, and by enabling the string to span more than one line in the source code. The new line is represented by one character of hexadecimal 0x0A, which is commonly called a line feed. No carriage return character of hexadecimal 0x0D is included, as in 0x0D0A.

: Field declaration or label specifier.

The colon (:) character is also used on the switch statement.

:: Used to call static (class) methods: ClassName::methodName.
; Terminates statements. Used in for loops or as a separator of statements.
< Less than. Relational Operators
<< Left shift. Arithmetic Operators
<= Less than or equal. Arithmetic Operators
= Assignment operator. The argument to the left of “=” is set to the value of the argument to the right. Assignment Operators
== Returns true if both expressions are equal. Relational Operators
> Greater than. Relational Operators
>= Greater than or equal. Relational Operators
>> Right shift. Arithmetic Operators
? Ternary operator.

The question mark (?) character is also used by the like operator to signify exactly one character of any kind. The like operator also uses the * character.

Ternary Operator (?)
[ Array declarator, open. Must be used with “]“.
] Array declarator, close. Must be used with “[“.
{ Indicates the beginning of a number of statements. The last of these statements must be followed by a “}“.
} Indicates the end of a number of statements. A “{” must appear before the first of these statements.
abstract Class and method modifier. An abstract class cannot be constructed with the new keyword. An abstract method cannot be called.

A table can also be modified as abstract by setting its Abstract property to Yes in the AOT, or by using the DictTable class. The Abstract property defaults to No, and it cannot be set unless the table is extended by another table. Each row in an abstract table must have a dependent row in a derived table. This means that each row in an abstract table has a value greater than 0 (zero) in its InstanceRelationType property field. There are no other effects from marking a table as abstract.

Informally, programmers often use the term concrete to describe a class that is non-abstract.

Method Modifiers

Table Inheritance Overview

anytype The method can return any data type. Anytype
as Needed when you assign a base class variable to a derived class variable. For example, given a Derived class that extends a Base class, the statement myDerived = myBase as Derived; avoids a compiler error by using the as keyword. This keyword also applies when you assign a base table variable to a derived table variable. Expression Operators: Is and As for Inheritance
asc An option on the order by or group by clause in a select statement. The sorting is ascending. Select Statement Syntax
at Specifies the position of a print window. Print Statements
avg Returns the average of the fields from the rows specified by the group by clause in a select statement. Select Statement Syntax
break Immediate exit from code block. Break Statements
breakpoint Represents a breakpoint that is set for debugging purposes. To set a breakpoint in your code, write:

breakpoint;

by Part of a reserved term, such as group by and order by.
byref Specifies that the parameter being passed to the called method is being passed by reference (address), instead of by value. Byref is used in X++ when calling a .NET method that takes a parameter by reference (such as with the C# keywords out or ref). How to: Use the byref Keyword for CLR Interop.
case Selection within a switch statement. Switch Statements
catch Used in exception handling. Exception Handling with try and catch Keywords
changeCompany Changes database settings to another company. Change Company Design Pattern
class Declares a class. Classes in X++
client Method modifier. Method Modifiers
container Specifies a variable of type container. Containers
continue Forces the next iteration of a loop. Continue Statements
count Returns the number of records from the rows specified by the group by clause in a select statement. Select Statement Syntax
crossCompany Causes a select statement to return data for all companies that the user is authorized to read from. Cross-Company X++ Code Basics
date Specifies a variable of type date. Dates
default Default case within switch statements. Switch Statements
delegate A class member that is able to store multiple references to methods in other classes, and to call all those methods when prompted to do so. A delegate can store references to various kinds of methods including the following:

  • static methods on X++ classes
  • instance methods on X++ classes
  • methods on .NET Framework classes
Event Terminology and Keywords

X++, C# Comparison: Event

delete_from Allows you to delete multiple records from the database at the same time. delete_from
desc An option on the order by or group by clause in a select statement. The sorting is descending. Select Statement Syntax
display Method modifier. Method Modifiers
div Integer division. Arithmetic Operators
do Beginning of a do...while loop. Do…while Loops
edit Method modifier. Method Modifiers
else Conditional execution (if...else). if and if … else Statements
eventHandler Must be used each time you either add or delete a method reference from a delegate by using the += or -= operator. For example:

myDelegate += eventHandler(OtherClass::myStaticMethod);

Event Terminology and Keywords

X++, C# Comparison: Event

exists Used with join clauses in select statements. Select Statement Syntax
extends A class or interface declaration clause. If your class does not explicitly extend another class, your class is considered to extend the Object class (as if you had written “extends Object”). Creating a Subclass
false Boolean literal. Booleans
final Class and method modifier. Method Modifiers
firstFast Used in select statements to speed up the fetch for the first row. Select Statement Syntax
firstOnly Used in select statements to fetch only the first record.

The firstOnly keyword does not guarantee that a maximum of one record is retrieved by an X++ SQL select statement. If the AOS can use the EntireTable cache to satisfy the data demands of the select statement, the firstOnly keyword is ignored.

Select Statement Syntax

Set-based Caching

firstOnly10 Same as firstOnly, except returns 10 rows instead of one.
firstOnly100 Same as firstOnly, except returns 100 rows instead of one.
firstOnly1000 Same as firstOnly, except returns 1000 rows instead of one.
flush Clears an entire table cache. Here is the syntax for the flush statement:

YourTable ytBuffer;  flush ytBuffer;

Set-based Caching
for For loop iteration. For Loops
forceLiterals Used in select statements to reveal actual values that are used in where clauses to the Microsoft SQL Server database at the time of optimization. Select Statement Syntax
forceNestedLoop Forces the SQL Server database to use a nested-loop algorithm to process a particular SQL statement containing a join. Select Statement Syntax
forcePlaceholders Used in select statements to instruct the kernel not to reveal the actual values used in where clauses to the Microsoft SQL Server database at the time of optimization. Select Statement Syntax
forceSelectOrder Forces the SQL Server database to access the tables in a join in the specified order. Select Statement Syntax
forUpdate Selects records exclusively for update. The operation to be performed on the records that are fetched is an update. Depending on the underlying database, the records may be locked for other users. Select Statement Syntax
from Part of a select statement. The from clause specifies the table in which the columns exists. Select Statement Syntax
group Part of the group by clause in a select statement. Select Statement Syntax
if Conditional execution. if and if … else Statements
implements Implements an interface. Interfaces Overview
insert_recordset Copies data from one or more tables into one resulting destination table on a single server trip. insert_recordset
int Specifies a variable of type integer (32-bit). Integers
int64 Specifies a variable of type integer (64-bit). Integers
interface Interface declaration. Interfaces Overview
is Asks whether the object referenced by a class variable either inherits from the given class or is of the given class. For example, given a Derived class that extends a Base class, the expression (myDerived is Base) returns true. This keyword applies to class inheritance and table inheritance. Expression Operators: Is and As for Inheritance
join Tables are joined on columns common to both tables. You can generate a single result set based on multiple tables through the use of joins. Select Statement Syntax
like Tests for matches by pattern, with wildcard symbols * and ?.

The string on the right side of the like operator must use four backslash characters to represent one backslash. Examples follow:

  • (“\\” like “*\\*” ) //Resolves to false.
  • (“\\” like “*\\\\*”) //Resolves to true.
Relational Operators
maxof Returns the maximum of the fields from the rows specified by the group by clause. Select Statement Syntax
minof Returns the minimum of the fields from the rows specified by the group by clause. Select Statement Syntax
mod Returns the integer remainder of the left expression1 divided by the right expression2. Informally this is sometimes called the modulo operator.

((12 mod 7) == 5) is true.

new Operator. Creates an instance of an anonymous class that is assignment-compatible with the named class/interface reference variables, or allocates memory for an array.
next Fetches the next record in a table.
noFetch Indicates that no records are to be fetched at present. Select Statement Syntax
notExists Used with join clauses in select statements. Select Statement Syntax
null Symbolic constant.
optimisticLock Forces a statement to run with optimistic concurrency control, even if a different value is set on the table. Select Statement Syntax
order Part of the order by clause in a select statement. Select Statement Syntax
outer outer join. Select Statement Syntax
pause Halts the execution of a job. The user is asked to state whether execution should continue. Select Statements
pessimisticLock Forces a statement to run with pessimistic concurrency control, even if a different value is set on the table. Select Statement Syntax
print Allows you to display output on the screen. Print Statements
private Method access modifier. Method Access Control
protected Method access modifier. Method Access Control
public Method access modifier. Method Access Control
real Specifies a variable of type real. Reals
repeatableRead Specifies that no other transactions can modify data that has been read by logic inside the current transaction, until after the current transaction completes.

An explicit transaction completes at either ttsAbort or at the outermost ttsCommit.

For a stand-alone select statement, the transaction duration is the duration of the select command. However, the database sometimes enforces the equivalent of repeatableRead in individual select statements even without this keyword appearing in your X++ code (depending on how the database decides to scan the tables).

For more information, see the documentation for the underlying relational database product.
retry Used in exception handling. Exception Handling with try and catch Keywords
return Exits from a method. Declaration of Methods
reverse Records are returned in reverse order. Select Statement Syntax
select The select clause designates which columns or views are shown in the result set. Select Statements
server Method modifier. Method Modifiers
setting Used with the update_recordset command. update_recordset
static Static methods may not refer to instance variables (only to static variables); may be invoked by using the class name rather than on an instance of the class (“MyClass.aStaticProcedure“). Method Modifiers
str Specifies a variable of type string. Strings
sum Returns the sum of the fields from the rows specified by the group by clause in a select statement. Select Statement Syntax
super Calls the method that was overridden by the current method. Table Methods
switch Switch selection statement. Switch Statements
tableLock Obsolete; tableLock is no longer available.
this A reference to the current instance of the class.
Used in X++ code inside a method of the class.
Used to reference method members of the class, but not field members of the class.public str getFullName()  {      // Next statement fails to compile without ‘this.’.      return this.concatenateFirstAndLastNames();  }
Loosely similar to the system variable that is named element. You use element in form control methods to reference the containing form. For more information, see Using Variables with Forms.
throw Used in exception handling. Exception Handling with try and catch Keywords
true Boolean literal. Booleans
try Used in exception handling. Exception Handling with try and catch Keywords
ttsAbort Discards all changes in the current transaction. Transaction Integrity
ttsBegin Marks the beginning of a transaction. Transaction Integrity
ttsCommit Marks the end of a transaction. Transaction Integrity
update_recordset Allows the manipulation of row sets within one operation. update_recordset
validTimeState Filters rows that are retrieved from a valid time state table by an X++ SQL select statement. For example: select validTimeState(myDateEffective) * from xMyTable; …or…  select validTimeState(myDateFrom, myDateTo) * from xMyTable; Effects of Valid Time State Tables on Read and Write Operations
void Identifies a method that does not return a value. Declaration of Methods
where Part of a select statement. The where clause specifies the conditions to be satisfied; that is, the rows that you want to include in the result. Select Statement Syntax
while Iteration statement. Executes a statement or block repeatedly when a test condition is true. While Loops

while select Statements

window Allows you to alter the size of the output window. Print Statements

Expressions Syntax

An expression in X++ is used in either a mathematical or logical way. Expressions are built on the data types of the language; that is, an expression returns a value of some type. This value can be used in calculations, assignments, conditional statements, and so on.

EBNF Description of Expressions in X++

Expression = Simple-expression [RelationalOperator Simple-expression ]
RelationalOperator = = | != | < | > | <= | >= | like
Simple-expression = Simple-expression [ + | – | | ] Term | Term
Term = Compfactor { Mult-operator CompFactor }
Mult-operator = * | / | div | mod | << | >> | & | ^ | |
CompFactor = [ ! ] [ – | ~ ] Factor
Factor = Literal | Enum | Variable | FunctionCall | ( If-expression ) | Select-expression
Enum = EnumName :: Literal
Variable = Identifier [ [ Expression ] ] [ . Expression ]
FunctionCall = [ Expression (. | ::) | this . ] FunctionName ( argumentlist )
If-expression = Expression ? Expression : Expression

Semantic restrictions apply on the preceding syntax. You cannot call any method using the :: operator. Similarly, you cannot use the this keyword without an active object; that is, if you are not within a method and so on.

Examples

Example of expression Description
1 An integer literal.
NoYes::No An enum-reference.
A A variable-reference.
Debtor::Find(“1”) A static method-call (returns a customer variable).
(A > 3 ? true : false) An if-expression that returns true or false.
(select CustTable where CustTable.Account == “100”).NameRef A select-expression. Returns the nameref field in the customer table. This is a string.
A >= B A logical expression. Returns true or false.
A + B An arithmetic expression. Sums A and B.
A + B / C Calculates B/C, and then adds this to A.
~A + this.Value() Sums binary not A and the result of the method-call Value on the object in scope (this).
Debtor::Find(“1”).NameRef Returns the NameRef field of the found customer record.
Debtor::Find(“1”).Balance() A method call to Balance in the customer table (Debtor::Find returns a customer). Returns the balance of the customer with account number 1.

EBNF Overview

Extended Backus Naur Form (EBNF) is a metalanguage and is used in this guide to describe the language syntax. An EBNF definition consists of production rules, nonterminals, and terminals. The key terms are shown in the following table.

Key terms Example Description
Terminals Work_Team A terminal is one character or a string of characters that never change.
Nonterminals Employee A nonterminal is a description of part of a valid sentence in the language that is defined either by a production rule or a textual description. A nonterminal symbol can always be expanded to one or more terminal symbols.
Production rules Employee = Developer | Tester A production rule is a description of a valid sentence. A production rule defines how a nonterminal symbol on the left side expands into a number of terminal and nonterminal symbols on the right side.

If you continue to expand all nonterminal symbols on the right side of the production rules in a particular grammar, you will eventually have a sequence of terminal symbols.

Example

Work_Team = Manager Employee {, Employee}  Employee = Developer | Tester

This example defines a Work_Team as consisting of a Manager and one or more Employees. An Employee is defined as being a Developer, or a Tester. The symbols used in the example are described in the following table.

Special Symbols in EBNF

Symbol Description
(Expression) Parentheses hold the symbols (terminals and nonterminals) together. They can be placed anywhere on the right side of a production rule.
Expression1 | Expression2 Or: Specifies that all the items on one side of the | apply, or else all the items on the other side of the | apply.
[Expression] Optional: The items between [ and ] are optional. All or none of the items in the brackets are included.
{Expression} Repeat: The items between { and } are optional, but can be repeated as many times as necessary.

For example, if the accessories you buy for your bicycle consist of a saddle, water-bottle holders, bells, and horns, and you could have either a bell or a horn, and zero, one, or more water bottle holders, and exactly one saddle, this could be expressed as:

Bicycle_Accessories = saddle [bell | horn] {water_bottle_holders}

This grammar defines the following possibilities:

saddle  saddle bell  saddle horn  saddle water_bottle_holder  saddle bell water_bottle_holder  saddle bell water_bottle_holder water_bottle_holder

And so on.

X++ Grammar

This topic shows the formal grammar of the X++ language.

How to Interpret the Formal BNF Grammar

This section describes the grammar of X++ in Backus Naur Form (BNF). A small example of BNF is described here.

BNF code Interpretation
Copy Code
AA ::= BB  CC_SYM
BB ::= JJ_SYM
   ::= KK_SYM

 

AA is the name of a production rule.

An AA requires a BB, followed by a CC_SYM.

A BB is also a production rule. Therefore, BB is not a terminal.

BB must be either a JJ_SYM or a KK_SYM. Both JJ_SYM and KK_SYM are terminals because they are not the names of any other production rules. CC_SYM is also a terminal.

In the BNF for X++ grammar, most of the terminals have _SYM as the suffix of their name.

The Formal X++ Grammar in BNF

This section contains the BNF that defines the grammar of X++.

Copy Code
CMPL_UNIT ::= RETTYPEID  FUNC_HDR  FUNC_HEAD  BODY
          ::= RETTYPEID  DATA_HDR  CLASS_DECL
          ::= EXPR_HDR  IF_EXPR  SEMIOPT
          ::= RETTYPEID  FUNC_HDR  EVENT_DECL  BODY
SEMIOPT ::= SEMICOLON_SYM
        ::= 
CLASS_DECL ::= CLASS_HEADER  LEFTBR_SYM  DCL_EVENTMAP  DCL_LIST  RIGHTBR_SYM
CLASS_HEADER ::= ATTRIBUTE_DEF  CLASS_MODIFIERS  CLASSORINTERFACE  STD_ID  EXTENDS  IMPLEMENTS
ATTRIBUTE_DEF ::= LEFT_BRKT_SYM  ATTRIBUTE_INIT  ATTRIBUTE_LIST  RETTYPEID  RGHT_BRKT_SYM
              ::= 
ATTRIBUTE_INIT ::= 
               .
ATTRIBUTE_LIST ::= ATTRIBUTE
               ::= ATTRIBUTE_LIST  LIST_SEP_SYM  ATTRIBUTE
ATTRIBUTE ::= STD_ID
          ::= ATTRIBUTE_WITH_ARGS_BEGINS  ATTRIBUTE_WITH_ARGS_ENDS
ATTRIBUTE_WITH_ARGS_BEGINS ::= STD_ID  LEFT_PAR_SYM
ATTRIBUTE_WITH_ARGS_ENDS ::= ATTRIBUTE_ARGS  RGHT_PAR_SYM
ATTRIBUTE_ARGS ::= ATTRIBUTE_CONSTANT
               ::= ATTRIBUTE_ARGS  LIST_SEP_SYM  ATTRIBUTE_CONSTANT
ATTRIBUTE_CONSTANT ::= INT_SYM
                   ::= DBL_SYM
                   ::= STR_SYM
                   ::= DATE_SYM
                   ::= DATETIME_SYM
                   ::= STD_ID  DBLCOLON_SYM  STD_ID
                   ::= TRUE_SYM
                   ::= FALSE_SYM
                   ::= INT64_SYM
                   ::= ATTRIBUTE_INTRINSIC
ATTRIBUTE_INTRINSIC ::= INTRI_ID  LEFT_PAR_SYM  IARGS  RGHT_PAR_SYM
CLASSORINTERFACE ::= CLASS_SYM
                 ::= INTERFACE_SYM
CLASS_MODIFIERS ::= CLASS_MODS
                ::= 
CLASS_MODS ::= CLASS_MODIFIER
           ::= CLASS_MODS  RETTYPEID  CLASS_MODIFIER
CLASS_MODIFIER ::= PUBLIC_SYM
               ::= FINAL_SYM
               ::= STATIC_SYM
               ::= ABSTRACT_SYM
               ::= PRIVATE_SYM
EXTENDS ::= EXTENDS_SYM  STD_ID
        ::= 
IMPLEMENTS ::= IMPLEMENTS_SYM  IMPLEMENTLIST
           ::= 
IMPLEMENTLIST ::= STD_ID
              ::= IMPLEMENTLIST  LIST_SEP_SYM  STD_ID
DCL_EVENTMAP ::= 
EVENT_DECL ::= ATTRIBUTE_DEF  EVENT_HEADER  PARM_DCL_LIST
EVENT_HEADER ::= EVENT_MODIFIER  VOID_TYPE_SYM  STD_ID
EVENT_MODIFIER ::= EVENT_SYM
FUNC_HEAD ::= ATTRIBUTE_DEF  FUNCNAME  PARM_DCL_LIST
FUNCNAME ::= FUNCTYPE  STD_ID
FUNCTYPE ::= FUNC_MODIFIERS  DECL_TYPE
FUNC_MODIFIERS ::= FUNC_MODS
               ::= 
FUNC_MODS ::= RETTYPEID  FUNC_MODIFIER
          ::= FUNC_MODS  RETTYPEID  FUNC_MODIFIER
FUNC_MODIFIER ::= PUBLIC_SYM
              ::= PRIVATE_SYM
              ::= PROTECTED_SYM
              ::= FINAL_SYM
              ::= STATIC_SYM
              ::= ABSTRACT_SYM
              ::= DISPLAY_SYM
              ::= EDIT_SYM
              ::= SERVER_SYM
              ::= CLIENT_SYM
BODY ::= LEFTBR_SYM  DCL_FUNC_LIST  SEMIOPT  SECAUTHZCHECK  STMTLIST  SECAUTHZEND  RIGHTBR_SYM
SECAUTHZCHECK ::= 
SECAUTHZEND ::= 
RETTYPEID ::= 
FUNCTION_DEF ::= FUNC_HEADER  PARM_DCL_LIST  LOCAL_BODY
FUNC_HEADER ::= DECL_TYPE  STD_ID
PARM_DCL_LIST ::= RETTYPEID  PARM_START  PARM_LIST_OPT  RGHT_PAR_SYM  RETTYPEID
PARM_START ::= LEFT_PAR_SYM
PARM_LIST_OPT ::= PARM_LIST
              ::= 
PARM_LIST ::= DCL_INIT
          ::= PARM_LIST  LIST_SEP_SYM  DCL_INIT
LOCAL_BODY ::= LEFTBR_SYM  DCL_LIST  SEMIOPT  STMTLIST  RETTYPEID  RIGHTBR_SYM
DCL_LIST ::= DCL_LIST2
         ::= 
DCL_LIST2 ::= DCL_STMT
          ::= DCL_LIST2  DCL_STMT
DCL_FUNC_LIST ::= DCL_FUNC_LIST2
              ::= 
DCL_FUNC_LIST2 ::= DCL_STMT
               ::= FUNCTION_DEF
               ::= DCL_FUNC_LIST2  DCL_STMT
               ::= DCL_FUNC_LIST2  FUNCTION_DEF
DCL_STMT ::= DCL_INIT_LIST  RETTYPEID  SEMICOLON_SYM
DCL_INIT_LIST ::= DCL_INIT
              ::= DCL_CLIST  ASG_CLAUSE
DCL_CLIST ::= DCL_INIT_LIST  LIST_SEP_SYM  STD_ID  ARR_DCL_IDX
DCL_INIT ::= DECL  ASG_CLAUSE
DECL ::= DECL_TYPE  STD_ID  ARR_DCL_IDX
DECL_TYPE ::= STR_TYPE_SYM  STR_LEN
          ::= INT_TYPE_SYM
          ::= DBL_TYPE_SYM
          ::= DATE_TYPE_SYM
          ::= DATETIME_TYPE_SYM
          ::= TYPE_ID
          ::= QUEUE_TYPE_SYM
          ::= VOID_TYPE_SYM
          ::= ANY_TYPE_SYM
          ::= GUID_TYPE_SYM
          ::= INT64_TYPE_SYM
          ::= CLR_TYPE
CLR_TYPE ::= CLR_NAMESPACE  TYPE_ID  CLR_ARRAY_TYPE_EXT
         ::= CLR_NAMESPACE  CLR_TYPE
CLR_NAMESPACE ::= TYPE_ID  PERIOD_SYM
CLR_ARRAY_TYPE_EXT ::= CLR_ARRAY_SPEC
                   ::= 
CLR_ARRAY_SPEC ::= CLR_ARRAY_PART
               ::= CLR_ARRAY_SPEC  CLR_ARRAY_PART
CLR_ARRAY_PART ::= CLR_ARRAY_LEFT_PART  CLR_RECTANGULAR_LIST  RGHT_BRKT_SYM
CLR_ARRAY_LEFT_PART ::= LEFT_BRKT_SYM
CLR_RECTANGULAR_LIST ::= CLR_COMMA_LIST
                     ::= 
CLR_COMMA_LIST ::= LIST_SEP_SYM
               ::= CLR_COMMA_LIST  LIST_SEP_SYM
STR_LEN ::= INT_SYM
        ::= 
ARR_DCL_IDX ::= LEFT_BRKT_SYM  RANGE  ARRAY_MEM  RGHT_BRKT_SYM
            ::= 
RANGE ::= IF_EXPR
      ::= 
ARRAY_MEM ::= LIST_SEP_SYM  IF_EXPR
          ::= 
ASG_CLAUSE ::= INIT_START  IF_EXPR
           ::= 
INIT_START ::= ASG_SYM
ASG_STMT ::= LVAL_FLD  ASSIGN  IF_EXPR
         ::= LVAL_LIST  ASG_SYM  IF_EXPR
         ::= LVAL_FLD  ASG_INC_DEC
         ::= ASG_INC_DEC  LVAL_FLD
         ::= LVAL_FLD  ASG_EVENT_HANDLER
ASSIGN ::= ASG_SYM
       ::= ASGINC_SYM
       ::= ASGDEC_SYM
ASG_INCDEC ::= ASGINC_SYM
           ::= ASGDEC_SYM
ASG_EVENT_HANDLER ::= ASG_INCDEC  EVENTHANDLER_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM  QUALIFIER  STD_ID  RGHT_PAR_SYM
  ::= ASG_INCDEC  EVENTHANDLER_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM  STD_ID  DBLCOLON_SYM  STD_ID  RGHT_PAR_SYM
  ::= ASG_INCDEC  EVENTHANDLER_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM  QUALIFIER  EVAL_CLR_TYPE  DBLCOLON_SYM  STD_ID  RGHT_PAR_SYM
ASG_INC_DEC ::= INC_SYM
            ::= DEC_SYM
LVAL_FLD ::= FIELD
LVAL_START ::= LEFT_BRKT_SYM
LVAL_LIST ::= LVAL_START  LVALUES  RGHT_BRKT_SYM
LVALUE ::= FIELD
LVALUES ::= LVALUE
        ::= LVALUES  NEXTLVAL  LVALUE
NEXTLVAL ::= LIST_SEP_SYM
IF_EXPR ::= COND_TRUE  IF_EXPR
        ::= BOOL_EXPR
COND_TRUE ::= COND_TEST  IF_EXPR  COLON_SYM
COND_TEST ::= BOOL_EXPR  QUEST_SYM
BOOL_EXPR ::= BOOL_EXPR  LOGOP  EXPR
          ::= EXPR
LOGOP ::= AND_SYM
      ::= OR_SYM
EXPR ::= SMPL_EXPR  RELOP  SMPL_EXPR
     ::= SMPL_EXPR  AS_SYM  STD_ID
     ::= SMPL_EXPR  IS_SYM  STD_ID
     ::= SMPL_EXPR  AS_SYM  EVAL_CLR_TYPE
     ::= SMPL_EXPR  IS_SYM  EVAL_CLR_TYPE
     ::= SMPL_EXPR
RELOP ::= LT_SYM
      ::= LE_SYM
      ::= EQ_SYM
      ::= NE_SYM
      ::= GT_SYM
      ::= GE_SYM
      ::= LIKE_SYM
SMPL_EXPR ::= SMPL_EXPR  ADDOP  TERM
          ::= TERM
ADDOP ::= PLUS_SYM
      ::= MINUS_SYM
      ::= PHYSOR_SYM
TERM ::= TERM  MULOP  CMPL_FACT
     ::= CMPL_FACT
MULOP ::= MULT_SYM
      ::= DIV_SYM
      ::= MOD_SYM
      ::= INTDIV_SYM
      ::= SHIFTL_SYM
      ::= SHIFTR_SYM
      ::= PHYSAND_SYM
      ::= PHYSXOR_SYM
CMPL_FACT ::= NOT_SYM  SGND_FACT
          ::= SGND_FACT
SGND_FACT ::= SIGNOP  FACTOR
          ::= FACTOR
SIGNOP ::= UMINUS_SYM
       ::= PHYSNOT_SYM
FACTOR ::= LEFT_PAR_SYM  IF_EXPR  RGHT_PAR_SYM
       ::= CONSTANT
       ::= FIELD
       ::= DIRSEARCH
       ::= FUNCTION
       ::= INTRINSICS
       ::= EVAL
       ::= CONLITTERAL
       ::= NEW_CLR_ARRAY
NEW_CLR_ARRAY ::= NEW_SYM  EVAL_CLR_TYPE  NEW_CLR_ARRAY_PART  LEFT_PAR_SYM  RGHT_PAR_SYM
NEW_CLR_ARRAY_PART ::= CLR_SIZED_ARRAY  CLR_NOSIZED_ARRAY_SPEC
CLR_SIZED_ARRAY ::= LEFT_BRKT_SYM  CLR_SMPL_EXPR_COMMA_LIST  RGHT_BRKT_SYM
CLR_SMPL_EXPR_COMMA_LIST ::= SMPL_EXPR
  ::= CLR_SMPL_EXPR_COMMA_LIST  LIST_SEP_SYM  SMPL_EXPR
CLR_NOSIZED_ARRAY_SPEC ::= CLR_NOSIZED_ARRAY_LIST
                       ::= 
CLR_NOSIZED_ARRAY_LIST ::= CLR_NOSIZED_ARRAY
                       ::= CLR_NOSIZED_ARRAY_LIST  CLR_NOSIZED_ARRAY
CLR_NOSIZED_ARRAY ::= LEFT_BRKT_SYM  CLR_EMPTY_COMMA_LIST  RGHT_BRKT_SYM
CLR_EMPTY_COMMA_LIST ::= CLR_EMPTY_RECT_COMMA_LIST
                     ::= 
CLR_EMPTY_RECT_COMMA_LIST ::= LIST_SEP_SYM
                          ::= CLR_EMPTY_RECT_COMMA_LIST  LIST_SEP_SYM
CONLITTERAL ::= LEFT_BRKT_SYM  IF_EXPR  EXPR_LIST  RGHT_BRKT_SYM
CONSTANT ::= INT_SYM
         ::= DBL_SYM
         ::= STR_SYM
         ::= DATE_SYM
         ::= DATETIME_SYM
         ::= STD_ID  DBLCOLON_SYM  STD_ID
         ::= TRUE_SYM
         ::= FALSE_SYM
         ::= NULL_SYM
         ::= INT64_SYM
         ::= QUALIFIER  EVAL_CLR_TYPE  DBLCOLON_SYM  STD_ID
         ::= QUALIFIER  STD_ID  DBLCOLON_SYM  STD_ID
DIRSEARCH ::= DIRS_HEADER  PERIOD_SYM  STD_ID  ARR_IDX
          ::= DIRS_HEADER  PERIOD_SYM  FLD_NUM  ARR_IDX
DIRS_HEADER ::= LEFT_PAR_SYM  SET_DIRS  FIND_JOIN  RGHT_PAR_SYM
SET_DIRS ::= 
FIELD ::= QUALIFIER  STD_ID  ARR_IDX
      ::= QUALIFIER  FLD_NUM  ARR_IDX
      ::= STD_ID  ARR_IDX
QUALIFIER ::= EVAL  PERIOD_SYM
          ::= STD_ID  PERIOD_SYM
FLD_NUM ::= LEFT_PAR_SYM  IF_EXPR  RGHT_PAR_SYM
ARR_IDX ::= LEFT_BRKT_SYM  SMPL_EXPR  RGHT_BRKT_SYM
        ::= 
EXPR_LIST ::= EXPR_LIST2
          ::= 
EXPR_LIST2 ::= LIST_SEP_SYM  IF_EXPR
           ::= EXPR_LIST2  LIST_SEP_SYM  IF_EXPR
FUNCTION ::= FUNC_ID  LEFT_PAR_SYM  EVAL_FUNCTION_NAME  PAR_LIST  RGHT_PAR_SYM
EVAL_FUNCTION_NAME ::= 
EVAL_NAME ::= EVAL_ID  LEFT_PAR_SYM
          ::= STD_ID  LEFT_PAR_SYM
          ::= STD_ID  DBLCOLON_SYM  STD_ID  LEFT_PAR_SYM
          ::= SUPER_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM
          ::= NEW_SYM  STD_ID  LEFT_PAR_SYM
          ::= NEW_SYM  EVAL_CLR_TYPE  LEFT_PAR_SYM
          ::= QUALIFIER  EVAL_CLR_TYPE  DBLCOLON_SYM  STD_ID  LEFT_PAR_SYM
          ::= QUALIFIER  STD_ID  LEFT_PAR_SYM
          ::= QUALIFIER  STD_ID  DBLCOLON_SYM  STD_ID  LEFT_PAR_SYM
EVAL_CLR_TYPE ::= NAMESPACE  STD_ID
              ::= NAMESPACE  EVAL_CLR_TYPE
NAMESPACE ::= STD_ID  PERIOD_SYM
EVAL ::= EVAL_NAME  PAR_LIST  RGHT_PAR_SYM
PAR_LIST ::= PRM_LIST
         ::= 
PRM_LIST ::= PAR_ELEM
         ::= PRM_LIST  LIST_SEP_SYM  PAR_ELEM
PAR_ELEM ::= IF_EXPR
         ::= BYREF_SYM  FIELD
INTRINSICS ::= INTRI_ID  LEFT_PAR_SYM  IARGS  RGHT_PAR_SYM
IARGS ::= STD_ID
      ::= STR_SYM
      ::= STD_ID  LIST_SEP_SYM  STD_ID
      ::= 
STMTLIST ::= STATEMENTS
         ::= 
STATEMENTS ::= STATEMENT
           ::= STATEMENTS  STATEMENT
STATEMENT ::= COMPOUND_STMT
          ::= WHILE_STMT
          ::= FOR_STMT
          ::= DO_STMT
          ::= SEARCH_STMT
          ::= FIND_STMT
          ::= PRINT_STMT
          ::= WINDOW_STMT
          ::= IF_STMT
          ::= SWITCH_STMT
          ::= EXPR_STMT
          ::= PAUSE_STMT
          ::= BP_CLAUSE
          ::= BREAK_STMT
          ::= CONTINUE_STMT
          ::= RETURN_CLAUSE
          ::= MOVE_REC_STMT
          ::= THROW_STMT
          ::= TRY_STMT
          ::= RETRY_STMT
          ::= TTS_STMT
          ::= FLUSH_STMT
          ::= TBLLOCK_STMT
          ::= CHANGE_STMT
          ::= UPDATE_STMT
          ::= INSERT_STMT
          ::= UNCHECKED_STMT
COMPOUND_STMT ::= LEFTBR_SYM  STMTLIST  RIGHTBR_SYM
THROW_STMT ::= THROW_SYM  IF_EXPR  SEMICOLON_SYM
TRY_STMT ::= TRY_BLOCK  CATCH_LIST
TRY_BLOCK ::= TRY_START  STATEMENT
TRY_START ::= TRY_SYM
CATCH_LIST ::= CATCH_STMT
           ::= CATCH_LIST  CATCH_STMT
CATCH_STMT ::= CATCH_EXPR  PRE_CATCH  STATEMENT  POST_CATCH
CATCH_EXPR ::= CATCH_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM  IF_EXPR  RGHT_PAR_SYM
  ::= CATCH_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM  IF_EXPR  LIST_SEP_SYM  TABLEINSTANCE  RGHT_PAR_SYM
  ::= CATCH_SYM
PRE_CATCH ::= 
POST_CATCH ::= 
TABLEINSTANCE ::= INSTANCENAME
INSTANCENAME ::= QUALIFIER  STD_ID  ARR_IDX
             ::= STD_ID  ARR_IDX
RETRY_STMT ::= RETRY_SYM  SEMICOLON_SYM
WHILE_STMT ::= WHILE_TEST  STATEMENT
WHILE_TEST ::= WHILE  LEFT_PAR_SYM  IF_EXPR  RGHT_PAR_SYM
WHILE ::= WHILE_SYM
DO_STMT ::= DO_BODY  DO_TEST  SEMICOLON_SYM
DO_BODY ::= DO_HEADER  STATEMENT
DO_HEADER ::= DO_SYM
DO_TEST ::= WHILE_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM  IF_EXPR  RGHT_PAR_SYM
FOR_STMT ::= FOR_HEADER  STATEMENT
FOR_HEADER ::= FOR_TEST  SEMICOLON_SYM  FOR_ASG  RGHT_PAR_SYM
FOR_TEST ::= FOR_INIT  SEMICOLON_SYM  IF_EXPR
FOR_INIT ::= FOR_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM  FOR_ASG
FOR_ASG ::= LVAL_FLD  ASSIGN  IF_EXPR
        ::= LVAL_FLD  ASG_INC_DEC
        ::= ASG_INC_DEC  LVAL_FLD
JOIN_LIST ::= JOIN_SPECS
          ::= 
JOIN_SPECS ::= JOIN_SPEC
           ::= JOIN_SPECS  JOIN_SPEC
JOIN_SPEC ::= JOIN_ORDER  WHERE  IF_EXPR
          ::= JOIN_ORDER
JOIN_ORDER ::= JOIN_USING
           ::= JOIN_USING  ORDER_GROUP
JOIN_USING ::= JOIN_CLAUSE  USING_INDEX  STD_ID
           ::= JOIN_CLAUSE  USING_INDEX  HINT_SYM  STD_ID
           ::= JOIN_CLAUSE
JOIN_CLAUSE ::= OUTER  JOIN_SYM  SELECTOPT  TABLE
OUTER ::= OUTER_SYM
      ::= EXISTS_SYM
      ::= NOTEXISTS_SYM
      ::= 
SEARCH_STMT ::= SEARCH_JOIN  STATEMENT
SEARCH_JOIN ::= SEARCH_WHERE  JOIN_LIST
SEARCH_WHERE ::= SEARCH_ORDER  WHERE  IF_EXPR
             ::= SEARCH_ORDER
WHERE ::= WHERE_SYM
SUM_ELEM ::= SUM_FUNC  LEFT_PAR_SYM  STD_ID  RGHT_PAR_SYM
SUM_FUNC ::= SUM_SYM
         ::= AVG_SYM
         ::= CNT_SYM
         ::= MINOF_SYM
         ::= MAXOF_SYM
SEARCH_ORDER ::= SEARCH_USING
             ::= SEARCH_USING  ORDER_GROUP
ORDER_GROUP ::= ORDERBY_CLAUSE  OPT_GROUPBY
            ::= GROUPBY_CLAUSE  OPT_ORDERBY
OPT_GROUPBY ::= GROUPBY_CLAUSE
            ::= 
OPT_ORDERBY ::= ORDERBY_CLAUSE
            ::= 
ORDERBY_CLAUSE ::= ORDER_SYM  OPT_BY  ORDER_ELEM
               ::= ORDERBY_CLAUSE  LIST_SEP_SYM  ORDER_ELEM
GROUPBY_CLAUSE ::= GROUP_SYM  OPT_BY  ORDER_ELEM
               ::= GROUPBY_CLAUSE  LIST_SEP_SYM  ORDER_ELEM
ORDER_ELEM ::= STD_ID  INDEX  DIRECTION
           ::= ORDER_QUALIFIER  STD_ID  INDEX  DIRECTION
ORDER_QUALIFIER ::= STD_ID  PERIOD_SYM
INDEX ::= LEFT_BRKT_SYM  INT_SYM  RGHT_BRKT_SYM
      ::= 
DIRECTION ::= ASCEND_SYM
          ::= DESCEND_SYM
          ::= 
OPT_BY ::= BY_SYM
       ::= 
SEARCH_USING ::= SEARCH_CLAUSE  USING_INDEX  STD_ID
             ::= SEARCH_CLAUSE  USING_INDEX  HINT_SYM  STD_ID
             ::= SEARCH_CLAUSE
USING_INDEX ::= INDEX_SYM
SEARCH_CLAUSE ::= WHILE_SYM  SELECT_SYM  SELECTOPT  CROSSCOMPANY_CLAUSE  VALIDTIMESTATE_CLAUSE  TABLE
CROSSCOMPANY_CLAUSE ::= CROSSCOMPANY_SYM
                    ::= CROSSCOMPANY_SYM  COLON_SYM  STD_ID
                    ::= 
VALIDTIMESTATE_CLAUSE ::= VALIDTIMESTATE_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM  STD_ID  LIST_SEP_SYM  STD_ID  RGHT_PAR_SYM
  ::= VALIDTIMESTATE_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM  STD_ID  RGHT_PAR_SYM
  ::= 
SELECTOPT ::= 
          ::= SELECTOPT  REVERSE_SYM
          ::= SELECTOPT  FIRSTFAST_SYM
          ::= SELECTOPT  FIRSTONLY_SYM
          ::= SELECTOPT  FIRSTONLY_SYM1
          ::= SELECTOPT  FIRSTONLY_SYM10
          ::= SELECTOPT  FIRSTONLY_SYM100
          ::= SELECTOPT  FIRSTONLY_SYM1000
          ::= SELECTOPT  FORUPDATE_SYM
          ::= SELECTOPT  NOFETCH_SYM
          ::= SELECTOPT  FORCE_SELECT_ORDER_SYM
          ::= SELECTOPT  FORCE_NESTED_LOOP_SYM
          ::= SELECTOPT  FORCE_LITERALS_SYM
          ::= SELECTOPT  FORCE_PLACEHOLDERS_SYM
          ::= SELECTOPT  REPEATABLEREAD_SYM
          ::= SELECTOPT  OPTIMISTICLOCK_SYM
          ::= SELECTOPT  PESSIMISTICLOCK_SYM
          ::= SELECTOPT  GENERATEONLY_SYM
FIND_STMT ::= FIND_JOIN  SEMICOLON_SYM
FIND_JOIN ::= FIND_WHERE  JOIN_LIST
FIND_WHERE ::= FIND_ORDER  WHERE  IF_EXPR
           ::= FIND_ORDER
FIND_ORDER ::= FIND_USING
           ::= FIND_USING  ORDER_GROUP
FIND_USING ::= FIND_TABLE  USING_INDEX  STD_ID
           ::= FIND_TABLE  USING_INDEX  HINT_SYM  STD_ID
           ::= FIND_TABLE
FIND_TABLE ::= SELECT_SYM  SELECTOPT  CROSSCOMPANY_CLAUSE  VALIDTIMESTATE_CLAUSE  TABLE
  ::= DELETE_SYM  SELECTOPT  CROSSCOMPANY_CLAUSE  VALIDTIMESTATE_CLAUSE  TABLE
TABLE ::= FLD_LIST  OPT_FROM
FLD_LIST ::= MULT_SYM
         ::= FIELD_LIST
FIELD_LIST ::= FIELD_SPEC
           ::= FIELD_LIST  LIST_SEP_SYM  FIELD_SPEC
FIELD_SPEC ::= STD_ID  INDEX
           ::= SUM_ELEM
OPT_FROM ::= FROM_SYM  STD_ID
         ::= 
SETFIELDSMODE ::= 
UPDATE_STMT ::= UPDATETABLE  SET_SYM  SETFIELDSMODE  FIELDASSIGNMENTS  OPT_WHERE  JOIN_LIST  SEMICOLON_SYM
UPDATETABLE ::= UPDATE_SYM  SELECTOPT  CROSSCOMPANY_CLAUSE  STD_ID
OPT_WHERE ::= WHERE  IF_EXPR
          ::= 
FIELDASSIGNMENTS ::= FIELDASSIGNMENTS  LIST_SEP_SYM  FIELDASSIGNMENT
                 ::= FIELDASSIGNMENT
FIELDASSIGNMENT ::= STD_ID  INDEX  ASG_SYM  IF_EXPR
INSERT_PART ::= INSERT_SYM  CROSSCOMPANY_CLAUSE  INSERT_NAME  LEFT_PAR_SYM  INSERTFIELDLIST  RGHT_PAR_SYM
INSERT_NAME ::= STD_ID
INSERT_STMT ::= INSERT_PART  FIND_JOIN  SEMICOLON_SYM
INSERTFIELDLIST ::= INSERTFIELD
                ::= INSERTFIELDLIST  LIST_SEP_SYM  INSERTFIELD
INSERTFIELD ::= STD_ID  INDEX
PRINT_STMT ::= PRINT_CLAUSE  AT_CLAUSE  SEMICOLON_SYM
PRINT_CLAUSE ::= PRINT  IF_EXPR  EXPR_LIST
PRINT ::= PRINT_SYM
AT_CLAUSE ::= AT_SYM  IF_EXPR  LIST_SEP_SYM  IF_EXPR
          ::= 
WINDOW_STMT ::= WINDOW_SYM  IF_EXPR  LIST_SEP_SYM  IF_EXPR  AT_CLAUSE  SEMICOLON_SYM
IF_STMT ::= ELSE_STMT
        ::= IF_CONDS
IF_CONDS ::= IF_COND  STATEMENT
IF_COND ::= IF_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM  IF_EXPR  RGHT_PAR_SYM
ELSE_STMT ::= ELSE  STATEMENT
ELSE ::= IF_CONDS  ELSE_SYM
SWITCH_STMT ::= CASE_LIST  RIGHTBR_SYM
CASE_LIST ::= SWITCH_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM  IF_EXPR  RGHT_PAR_SYM  LEFTBR_SYM
          ::= CASE_TESTS  STMTLIST
CASE_TESTS ::= CASE_HEADER  COLON_SYM
           ::= CASE_LIST  DEFAULT_SYM  COLON_SYM
CASE_HEADER ::= CASE  IF_EXPR
            ::= CASEALT  IF_EXPR
CASE ::= CASE_LIST  CASE_SYM
CASEALT ::= CASE_HEADER  LIST_SEP_SYM
EXPR_STMT ::= ASG_STMT  SEMICOLON_SYM
          ::= FUNCTION  SEMICOLON_SYM
          ::= INTRINSICS  SEMICOLON_SYM
          ::= EVAL  SEMICOLON_SYM
PAUSE_STMT ::= PAUSE_SYM  SEMICOLON_SYM
BP_CLAUSE ::= BP_SYM  SEMICOLON_SYM
BREAK_STMT ::= BREAK_SYM  SEMICOLON_SYM
CONTINUE_STMT ::= CONTINUE_SYM  SEMICOLON_SYM
RETURN_CLAUSE ::= RETURN_SYM  SEMICOLON_SYM
              ::= RETURN_SYM  IF_EXPR  SEMICOLON_SYM
TTS_STMT ::= TTSABORT_SYM  SEMICOLON_SYM
         ::= TTSBEGIN_SYM  SEMICOLON_SYM
         ::= TTSEND_SYM  SEMICOLON_SYM
FLUSH_STMT ::= FLUSH  ID_LIST  SEMICOLON_SYM
FLUSH ::= FLUSH_SYM
TBLLOCK_STMT ::= TABLELOCK  ID_LIST  SEMICOLON_SYM
TABLELOCK ::= TABLELOCK_SYM
ID_LIST ::= STD_ID
        ::= ID_LIST  LIST_SEP_SYM  STD_ID
MOVE_REC_STMT ::= NEXT_SYM  TABLE  SEMICOLON_SYM
CHANGE_STMT ::= CHANGE_HEADER  STATEMENT
CHANGE_HEADER ::= CHANGE  LEFT_PAR_SYM  IF_EXPR  RGHT_PAR_SYM
CHANGE ::= CHANGECOMP_SYM
       ::= CHANGESITE_SYM
UNCHECKED_STMT ::= UNCHECKED_HEADER  STATEMENT
UNCHECKED_HEADER ::= UNCHECKED_SYM  LEFT_PAR_SYM  IF_EXPR  RGHT_PAR_SYM

 

X++ Language Syntax is Stricter in Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012

Starting in Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012, the syntax rules for X++ are stricter than in previous versions of the product. This topic describes the syntax changes.

Table of X++ Syntax Changes

The following table displays a list of syntax changes that start in Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012.

Area Syntax rule Before Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 Starting with Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012
Escape The backslash character \ is rejected by the compiler for unrecognized escapes The compiler used to accept “31\12\2002”, but during run time the literal string was interpreted as a different value. Now the following X++ statement is rejected by the compiler:

str myDateString = “31\12\2002”;

The proper syntax is “31\\12\\2002”.

Exceptions Retry is no longer allowed outside of a catch block It was possible to write the retry keyword outside of a catch block. This caused the program to end when the retry was reached during runtime. Now retry can occur only inside a catch block. For more information, see Exception Handling with try and catch Keywords.
Exceptions Now you can throw and catch only int values It was possible to throw scalar expressions like strings and dates, such as throw "hello world";, and get no compile error. At runtime this was catch-able by a catch block that was not decorated with any specific value, such as catch {print(“Catch worked.”);}. Now the only expression you can put on the throw keyword is an int.

Often the best thing to throw is Global::error(“Explanation”);. Often the best thing to catch is an element of the Exception enum. For more information, see Exception Handling with try and catch Keywords.

Inheritance Downcasting can now be explicit.

Note
It is good programming practice to avoid implicit downcasts.
It was possible to assign a base object to a derived object with the simple assignment operator, which is the equals sign (=). The compiler accepted these assignments, but during run time any misuse of an improper downcast assignment caused an error. Now all downcasts can be explicit. This is accomplished with the new as expression operator. Explicit downcasting with the as keyword is illustrated by the following code example, in which ThingClass extends Object:

ThingClass myThing = new ThingClass();  Object myObject = myThing;  myThing = myObject as ThingClass; // Explicit downcast, good.

For more information, see Expression Operators: Is and As for Inheritance.

Inheritance Override of a base method cannot be less accessible than the base method It was possible to have a base method be decorated with protected and yet have an override of that method be private. Now when a base method is protected, the override method must be either protected or public, and the override method cannot be private. For more information, see Method Access Control.
Inheritance Override of a base method must have the exact same return type and parameter signature as the base method Suppose a base class had a method that inputs a parameter of the Common table, which is the base of all tables. In a derived class it was possible to override the method to instead input MyTable. Now the parameter signatures of the base method and its override method must match exactly. Also, the return types must match exactly. For more information, see Overriding a Method.
Interfaces Implementation of an interface method must match the parameter signature exactly Suppose an interface had a method that input a parameter of an int. In a class that implements the interface, it was possible to write the method with a parameter of a str. Now the parameter signatures of the method must exactly match between the interface and the implementation of the method on a class. Also, the return types must match exactly. For more information, see Interfaces Overview.
Interfaces A non-abstract base class that implements an interface cannot rely on a derived class for that implementation When a base class implements an interface, it was possible for the class to not implement the methods of the interface if a derived class implemented the methods. The only limitation was that the new constructor method could not be called on the class. Now the compiler requires that every class that implements an interface must have or inherit a complete implementation of every method of the interface. For more information, see X++, C# Comparison: Object Oriented Programming.
Modifiers The static modifier should not be applied to an interface It was possible to write static interface IMyInterface {}, but the static modifier had no effect because it makes no sense in this context. Sometime after Microsoft Dynamics AX 2009 the X++ compiler might stop allowing the static modifier on interface declarations. For more information, see Interfaces Overview.
Modifiers The static modifier must not be applied to the new constructor It was possible to apply the static modifier to the declaration of the new constructor method. This caused new MyClass(); to behave as a null operation. Instead, the statement MyClass::new(); would call the static new method, but that would not construct an object. Now the compiler issues an error when the static modifier is applied to the new method. For more information, see Constructors.
Modifiers Use an explicit access modifier on each method In the past the menu item of AOT > Classes > MyClass > New Method created the method without any access modifier. This meant that the method was implicitly public, although some X++ developers might not have been fully aware of the default. This created extra work later when a developer needed to modify the code in the method, because the developer had to research everywhere that the method might be called from. Now the New Method menu item explicitly includes the private keyword in its automatic declaration of the new method. The developer can type in a different modifier if appropriate. For more information, see Method Modifiers.
Parameters Parameters given in a call to a new constructor method must match the parameters on the new constructor method It was possible to pass in multiple parameters on call to a new constructor method even when the new method was declared to input no parameters. Now the call to the new method must exactly match the declared parameter signature of the new method. For more information, see Creating a Subclass.
Parameters Parameters with default values must come after all parameters that do not have default values It was possible to declare a method that takes in two parameters, and have only the first parameter offer a default value. There was no purpose to this. There was no way to accept the default of the first parameter because the call must specify a value for the second parameter and cannot omit the first parameter. Now in the declaration of a method, any parameter that offers a default value must come after all the parameters that do not. For more information, see the following topics:

  • Using Optional Parameters
  • Best Practices for Parameters
Parameters Override of a method must have the same default parameters as the overridden method It was possible to declare a method as public void myMethod(int i=22){} and the override as public void myMethod(){}. But if the override method was called as derivedObject(333); an error occurred. Now the override method must list the same parameter types in the same sequence that they are declared in the overridden method. For more information, see Overriding a Method.
Preprocessor A TODO in a comment must be the first non-whitespace in the first line of the comment The X++ preprocessor used to detect the TODO keyword in a multi-line /* … */ task comment even when the TODO appeared after other text after the first comment line. Now the X++ preprocessor detects the TODO keyword only if TODO appears on the first line of the comment, and as the first non-whitespace in the comment. For more information, see TODO Comments for X++ Developer Tasks.
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